The Constitutional Underpinnings
Public Opinion and The Media
Political Parties, Interest Groups, and PACs
Institutions of Government - Congress
86. congressional district
87. legislative oversight - This is the process of Congress overseeing the executive branches carrying out of the will of Congress.
88. House Rules Committee
91. pork barrel
92. conference committee
93. standing committee
94. joint committee
95. select committee
96. pocket veto
98. discharge petition
99. Speaker of the House
100. president pro tempore
101. majority leader
102. minority leader
Institutions of Government - The Judiciary
103. original jurisdiction
104. appellate jurisdiction - This is the jurisdiction a court has to hear appeals of cases originally decided in a lower court. Some courts, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, have original jurisdiction in some cases and appellate jurisdiction in others.
105. senatorial courtesy
106. judicial review - The power of the courts, especially the Supreme Court, to review the constitutionality of laws passed by the legislative branch.
107. judicial restraint - opposite of judicial activism
108. judicial activism
109. Marbury v. Madison
110. writ of certiorari
Institutions of Government - The President
1. How do presidents use their informal powers to get their legislative agenda passed?
2. How can Congress curb the foreign policy making powers of the president?
3. How does the president use the appointment power to insure that policies are carried out?
4. What techniques can presidents use to promote their legislative agenda in the face of divided government?
5. What impact does the White House staff have on policy making?
6. Why would Congress give the president a line-item veto?
7. Do executive agreements frustrate the intent of the framers of the Constitution?
113. executive agreements
114. commander in chief
115. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
116. War Powers Act
117. chief of staff
118. Office of Management and Budget
Institutions of Government - The Bureaucracy
1. To what degree is the bureaucracy able to maintain political neutrality?
2. How do iron triangles and issue networks foster democratic principles?
3. How does Congress control the bureaucracy?
4. How does the bureaucracy act to implement the intent of Congress?
5. How do regulatory agencies work to protect society?
6. How do presidents control their policy preferences through the bureaucracy?
121. regulatory agency - A department of a state or the national government that is charged with promulgating and enforcing regulations in a particular area, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
123. Federal Reserve Board
124. iron triangle
125. alliance (issue) network - an association of people or groups that band together to advocate a particular position on a particular public policy issue.
126. civil service system
1. Why do the poorest people in the United States have the least political power?
2. What role does federalism play in the implementation of social welfare policy?
3. Why is it so difficult to pass social welfare policy?
4. Why are entitlement programs always a threat to the budget-making process?
5. Why can it be said that the president is a secondary player when it comes to the economy?
6. Why is it so difficult to write a budget for the United States?
7. How can the president use the budget-making process to control his policy initiatives?
127. social welfare policy
129. policy fragmentation
130. policy implementation
131. agenda setting
132. issue-attention cycle
133. gross domestic product (GDP)
134. laissez-faire economics
135. Keynesian economics
136. fiscal policy
137. monetary policy
138. trade deficit
139. deficit spending
140. Federal Reserve System
141. supply-side economics
142. Office of Management and Budget
143. Congressional Budget Office
144. mandatory spending - opposite of discretionary spending
145. discretionary spending
146. social welfare
147. entitlement programs - Benefits extended to individuals who meet legislatively established eligibility requirements. Any individual who meets the requirements is considered "entitled" to the benefit, regardless of the overall amount spent on providing the benefit to all eligible individuals. (http://www.thisnation.com/print/glossary2.html#D-G)
149. Social Security
151. food stamps
152. supplemental public assistance programs
153. Welfare Reform Act
Civil Rights and Civil Liberties
1. Why would Justice Thurgood Marshall blame the Supreme Court for the racial policies practiced in the United States before the Brown decision?
2. Why did the Supreme Court allow the use of affirmative action programs?
3. Why is it said that the Warren Court took the handcuffs off the criminals and put them on the police?
4. What mechanism did the Supreme Court use to ensure the rights of defendants in state criminal prosecutions?
5. What impact has the interpretation of speech as a preferred right had on the government’s power to censure?
6. How does the Supreme Court interpret the right to privacy on matters dealing with human reproduction?
7. How has the Supreme Court changed its reasoning in dealing with religious activities in schools financed by the public?
154. selective incorporation
155. Fourteenth Amendment
156. freedom of speech
157. freedom of the press
158. freedom of assembly
159. freedom of religion
163. preferred position doctrine - Freedom of expression has a preferred position in our constitutional hierarchy; judges have a special duty to protect these freedoms and should be most skeptical about laws trespassing on them.
164. prior restraint
165. rights of the accused
166. double jeopardy
167. unreasonable search and seizure
168. probable cause
169. exclusionary rule
170. objective good faith
171. inevitable discovery rule
172. cruel and unusual punishment
173. implied right to privacy
174. due process
175. Jim Crow laws
176. poll tax
177. grandfather clause
178. Civil Rights Act of 1964
179. de facto segregation
180. de jure segregation
181. affirmative action
182. Equal Rights Amendment
You should know the consequences of the following cases:
1. Marbury v. Madison
2. Dartmouth College v. Woodwind
3. MeCulloch v. Maryland
4. Gibbons v. Ogden
5. Shaw v. Reno
6. Miller v. Johnson
7. INS v. Lopez
8. Clinton v. City of New York
9. Plessy v. Ferguson
10. Brown v. Board of Education (and Brown II)
11. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
12. California v. Bakke
13. Adarand v. Pena
14. Smith v. Allwright
15. Schenck v. US
16. Gitlow v. New York
17. Dennis v. US
18. Brandenburg v. Ohio
19. New York Times v. Sullivan
20. New York Times v. US
21. Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier
22. Griswold v. Connecticut
23. Roe v. Wade
24. Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
25. Lemon v. Kurtzman
26. Engle v. Vitale
27. Abington Township v. Schempp
28. Miranda v. Arizona
29. Mapp v. Ohio
30. Gideon v. Wainright